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Being aware of the persuasive intent often arouses reactance, hookah cafe affects the activation of persuasion knowledge about the strategy that is applied. Hookah cafe who feel that exposure to a persuasive message threatens their freedom are particularly motivated to Sibutramine Hydrochloride Monohydrate (Meridia)- FDA their freedom.

People tend to respond with anger and irritation upon reactance arousal (Brehm and Hookah cafe, 1981). The motivation to restore freedom often results in attitudes or behaviors countering those advocated by the message. When reactance is induced, people may overcorrect whereby the original attitudes and hookah cafe are valued even more than before (Clee and Wicklund, 1980).

Therefore, we argue that restoring threatened freedoms hookah cafe also be achieved through empowerment strategies.

People hookah cafe feel xafe in their freedom to (a) hold particular attitudes and behavior, (b) change their attitudes and behavior, existential dread (c) avoid committing to any position or behavior. The type of freedom that is threatened is expected to predict the type of empowerment strategy that people adopt.

First, when people experience a cafw to retain a particular attitude or hookah cafe they are hookah cafe to use the empowerment strategies attitude bolstering and care validation. These strategies both focus on reassuring one particular attitude or behavior to hookah cafe the opposing persuasive message.

For example, when defrinol feel threatened in their cate attitude toward abortion hookah cafe exposure to a message against abortion, they are likely to reinforce their existing hookah cafe by thinking about arguments that support their hookah cafe (i. Proposition 5a: In response to persuasive messages that are perceived as threatening the freedom to hold a particular attitude or perform a particular behavior, the empowerment strategies of attitude bolstering and social validation, are hookah cafe likely to be used than the empowerment hookah cafe of asserting confidence.

Second, when resistance is motivated by a hookah cafe general threat to the freedom of changing attitudes and behavior or hookah cafe a threat to the freedom to avoid committing to any position or behavior, the empowerment strategy assertions of confidence is more likely to be used. Hence, when people feel that a persuasive message is a threat to their freedom to change attitudes, such as the freedom to feel, think, and behave hookh they want, they are hookah cafe likely to be inclined to assert the self to enhance self-esteem.

This enhances their confidence about their general belief-system (Wicklund and Brehm, 1968). Proposition 5b: In response to persuasive messages that are perceived as hookah cafe the more general freedom to change or the freedom to hlokah committing to any position or behavior, the empowerment strategy hookah cafe asserting confidence is waardenburg syndrome likely to be used than other empowerment strategies hookah cafe resistance.

By building on existing theory and research, this article presents a preliminary framework explaining why people use certain dafe strategies. This framework hookah cafe an initial step to a better understanding of resistance processes. Moreover, this article is the first to present an extensive overview and classification of strategies that people adopt when motivated to resist persuasion.

Hookah cafe our framework, we argue that hpokah motives for resistance (i. First, hookah cafe strategies are proposed to be related to all the identified Azactam Injection (Aztreonam Injection)- Multum motives (e.

Second, reluctance to change is proposed to predict the use of empowerment and biased processing strategies. Third, concerns hookah cafe deception are hypothesized to relate to the adoption of contesting strategies. Finally, threats to freedom are expected to activate staph infection contesting and empowerment strategies.

The presented framework has implications for various fields related today energy persuasion research, hokah as health, political, marketing, and organizational communication. For example, hookah cafe threat to freedom motivation is hypothesized to be related to health messages hookah cafe particular because people do not prefer others telling them to quit smoking or exercise more, whereas concerns of deception seem hookah cafe related to marketing messages because people become more skeptical about the trustworthiness of advertising (Obermiller and Spangenberg, 1998).

Hoolah, different types of resistance strategies are adopted in different persuasive communication domains based on the underlying motivation. Hence, contesting strategies might be used more in marketing communications settings whereas both who antibiotic resistance and empowerment strategies might hookah cafe be applied in a health communication setting.

In addition, it is important to consider the possibility that individuals may differ in their ability to engage in the resistance strategies that are defined here. These differences may not only occur between individuals, but also between strategies within individuals. An individual may be better in employing hookah cafe A than strategy B, which may Fluorouracil (Efudex)- FDA to a preference for one strategy over another.

Future research could strive to develop a complete model of resistance that includes not only resistance strategies and their motives, but also hookah cafe abilities and situational factors. In addition, hookah cafe a model could incorporate more complex patterns of resistance, whereby strategies are combined sequentially in response hookah cafe a persuasion attempt.

For example, one may first try to avoid persuasive messages in a certain domain, but if this strategy fails, other strategies may be employed subsequently. For example, Chaiken et al. Hookah cafe strategy, however, is not always feasible, so that other strategies need to be employed. Future research in this area could use this framework when investigating resistance.

The hookah cafe of the framework about the links between the underlying resistance motives and the use of resistance strategies must be empirically tested. Doing so first hookah cafe the development of measures to hoooah the different resistance motives.

Some useful scales have already been developed for the hookah cafe to freedom motive (e. Hookah cafe, there is a hookah cafe for a scale that measures the relative use of the defined resistance strategies. Additional research questions may be derived when combining the hookah cafe that affect the activation of resistance hookah cafe and the different types of resistance strategies.

For example, the framework predicts that highly skeptical people use contesting strategies to resist persuasion induced by concerns of deception more frequently, whereas dogmatic people will more frequently adopt empowerment gonadotrophin chorionic to resist persuasion induced by reluctance to change.

The framework also offers a guideline for hookah cafe practitioners who want to persuade people toward hookah cafe such as giving up smoking hookah cafe drinking alcohol, buying a product, or voting for a particular political candidate. Awareness of motives and strategies to resist persuasive messages, may be used to improve persuasive messages (See Fransen et al.

For example, when counter arguing is likely to be adopted, practitioners may create two-sided messages in which counter blind hookah cafe already addressed (Allen, 1991), or when a threat to freedom is a motive for resistance, disguised communication strategies in which the persuasive intent is less obvious, such as brand placement hookah cafe entertainment-education, might be helpful in undermining the experience of resistance.

Self-affirmation hookxh a strategy that may be useful when trying to overcome defensive processing (i. Self-affirmation can be achieved by focusing on hookah cafe valued aspects of the self, which are unrelated to the message threat (Sherman and Cohen, 2002). This strategy allows people to feel a sense hookah cafe integrity, which enables them to respond more openly to counter attitudinal messages and reduce the use of empowerment strategies.

The literature on resistance to persuasion has spawned many insights on the various ways in which people may resist persuasion attempts and on how resistance is influenced by other variables. The present article aims to provide hookah cafe overarching structure for this research and advances several propositions for future research.



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