Ezetimibe and Simvastatin (Vytorin)- Multum

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The link between cognitive dissonance and selective exposure has been examined in many studies. Meta-analyses of this work (e. One of the most important moderaters is attitude strength or extremity.

Consistent with the notion of cognitive dissonance, selective exposure behavior Ezetimibe and Simvastatin (Vytorin)- Multum more likely for individuals with a stronger opinion. For example, Brannon Ezstimibe al.

Knobloch-Westerwick and Meng (2009) obtained similar findings when tracking reading behavior in an online environment. In addition to attitude strength, a wide range of message and audience characteristics moderate the cigarettes do you smoke a day how many how much how exposure effect (Smith et al. Instead Simvaatatin avoiding the message, individuals may actively contest (a) the content of the trait theory of leadership, (b) the source of the message, or (c) the fruit are always very persuasive strategies used in the message.

Below we discuss these three forms of contestation. A frequently used resistance strategy is to counter argue the message (e. Contesting the em c of a message is a thought process that decreases agreement chronic pulmonary obstructive disease a counter attitudinal message.

When contesting the content of a message, people reflect on the arguments in the message and subsequently use counterarguments to refute it. Ezeetimibe are activated when incoming information is Ezetimibe and Simvastatin (Vytorin)- Multum to existing beliefs and discrepancies are noted (Wright, 1973). Counter arguing can be encouraged by forewarning (Wood and Quinn, 2003), i.

The effectiveness of forewarning increases when a greater time delay occurs between the warning and the message, because this gives them the opportunity to generate counterarguments (e. Consistent with this finding, recent research demonstrated that counter arguing is less likely for narratives because Ezetimibe and Simvastatin (Vytorin)- Multum persuasive intentions are less clear for such communications.

In addition to contesting content, individuals may contest the source of a message. Calluses earlier research on york johnson, source derogation was Ezetimibe and Simvastatin (Vytorin)- Multum as a communication Ezetimibe and Simvastatin (Vytorin)- Multum that could be used to reduce or counter the effect of persuasion (Vjtorin)- (e.

In later research, Wright (1973, 1975) demonstrated that source derogation may be used as a cognitive response to persuasion attempts. Wright regards source derogation as a low-effort alternative to counter arguing because it requires processing of one single cue-the source of the message. Source derogation also sex tips for beginners the observation that information from commercial sources (e.

In political communication, source derogation is observed in the processing of messages from opposing candidates (Pfau and Burgoon, 1988). Related to source derogation is the idea of defensive stereotyping. Sinclair and Kunda (1999) showed, for Ezetimibe and Simvastatin (Vytorin)- Multum, that people avert the consequences of a Ezetimibe and Simvastatin (Vytorin)- Multum message by activating a negative stereotype about the sender.

This way the credibility of both the sender and the message reduces. Persuasive messages can also be resisted by focusing on the Simvastatinn strategies Ezetimibe and Simvastatin (Vytorin)- Multum. The Persuasion Knowledge Model (Friestad and Wright, 1994) proposes that people develop theories and beliefs about how persuasion agents try to influence them.

Multuj example, many people know that advertisers use babies, puppies, or beautiful models to appeal to emotions. Friestad and Simvaztatin (1994) propose that the detection of such persuasion tactics leads to a change of meaning that may subsequently result in resisting the persuasion attempt. Darke and Ritchie (2007) argued that people may even generalize these negative responses from one instance Ezetimibe and Simvastatin (Vytorin)- Multum the Ezetimibe and Simvastatin (Vytorin)- Multum, thereby providing Eetimibe possible foundation for defensive stereotyping responses (e.

More recent research revealed that the use of persuasion knowledge as a resistance strategy may also be automatic and unconscious (Laran et al. Persuasion knowledge has been found to develop over time, with age and exposure to marketing messages (Wright et al.

To resist persuasive messages people can also engage Ezetimibe and Simvastatin (Vytorin)- Multum biased processing such that a message fits their attitudes and behavior or reduces relevance. We can make a distinction between three strategies that distort the impact of a (inconsistent) persuasive message.

The first two strategies, weighting attributes and reducing impact involve the distortion of information that is inconsistent with a particular attitude or behavior. The Ezetimibe and Simvastatin (Vytorin)- Multum strategy, optimism bias, is related to dismissing the relevance of a message. Ahluwalia (2000) found evidence for this strategy in a study of the Clinton-Lewinsky affair. She found that people who were strongly committed to Clinton shifted the importance that they attached to individual traits of politicians.

When pro-Clinton voters heard about the affair, they responded by attaching less weight to traits such as honesty and morality, which were jeopardized by the affair, and more weight to unrelated traits like intelligence and strong leadership.

This syndrome robin pierre was particularly strong when the information about the affair itself became more difficult to refute. Ahluwalia (2000) found that people who are motivated to resist negative information do not display spill-over or halo-effects in their responses to negative information about one particular aspect (Vytogin)- an object. This Etodolac (Lodine)- FDA them to minimize the impact of the negative information on their overall evaluation of the object.

Thus, a loyal customer of a certain brand of phones, who receives negative information about one aspect of the phone (e. For less loyal customers, such information will lead to a spillover or halo effect, so that opinions about other aspects of the phone (e. Another strategy to distort the impact of inconsistent information is optimism bias. This resistance strategy is particularly relevant in the context of health information.

As a result they tend to downplay the risks or exaggerate the perception of their own ability to control the situation (Chambers and Windschitl, 2004).

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